VMWare-Offsite Backup Solution

Posted by support | Active Directory,Cisco,GSX,Routers,VMWare | Wednesday 14 June 2006 8:02 am

Using the current technologies with VMWare, Windows, and Cisco, it is possible to have a live backup at an alternate location. The link below show a demo Viso layout of Windows 2003 Doman Controllers and SQL running a cutomers location and being repicated over a T1 to a hosting company. This aritcle will be update from time to time to get results of T1 usage and how VMWare performs.

Demo Layout

June 20, 2006 (Bandwidth)
The bandwidth with equipment on both sides of the T1 is not an issue. The broadcast is from 0.1% to 0.5% of the T1. Routers are Cisco 1720 and 7206 VXR. Note that equipment is on both sides but nothing is making a connection. Once the Hosting DC is in the bandwidth should go up.  (I had to put this on its own router.  The VXR would just shutdown the port)

June 26, 2006
7206 VXR had issue with the 10meg 8 port card. I moved client to a Cisco 1720. All is okay.
July 13, 2006
3 1/2 weeks average report on the T1 usage.
T1 Usage


The usage is low and should be okay for DFS Replication.
Now on to the next phase.

Next Phase:
Install Server 2003
installed VMWare tools
added to Domain
Added Symantec BAckup Agent

Backwidth for today without and with replication.

As one can tell from the chart bandwidth did increase.

July 31, 2006

For the month of July with just AD Replication and some test replication with DFS.
end of month

Now, we go on to SQL Server image in VMWare.
Customer wants to wait until busy session is over.

August 5, 2006
Next week image moves to production servers.

August 13, 2006
Image in with other production servers. No issues.

March 5, 2007
Event Logs look good on the T1 side of Active Directory. Image has not issues with the bridge over the T1.

March 6, 2007
If a reboot is done or a shutdown –more toward shutdown– the WAN connection will become slow if this ‘Offsite DC’ is the DNS for the Domain even though the other DC is aloso the DNS for the Domain.  I found this out the hard way.

ISPConfig Webhosting Appliance

Posted by support | General | Monday 5 June 2006 3:32 am


Full featured and secure web- and mail hosting appliance with ISPConfig management interface.

RAID Layouts

Posted by support | Hardware,RAID | Thursday 1 June 2006 8:59 am

RAID (Which one is best)

RAID 0 is great for performance but if one drive fails all the data is lost.

Windows XCopy

Posted by support | Command Line,Microsoft | Thursday 1 June 2006 8:59 am

Copies files and directories, including subdirectories.
xcopy Source [Destination] [/w] [/p] [/c] [/v] [/q] [/f] [/l] [/g] [/d[:mm-dd-yyyy]] [/u] [/i] [/s [/e]] [/t] [/k] [/r] [/h] [{/a|/m}] [/n] [/o] [/x] [/exclude:file1[+[file2]][+[file3]] [{/y|/-y}] [/z]
Source : Required. Specifies the location and names of the files you want to copy. This parameter must include either a drive or a path.
Destination : Specifies the destination of the files you want to copy. This parameter can include a drive letter and colon, a directory name, a file name, or a combination of these.

/w : Displays the following message and waits for your response before starting to copy files:
Press any key to begin copying file(s)

/p : Prompts you to confirm whether you want to create each destination file.

/c : Ignores errors.

/v : Verifies each file as it is written to the destination file to make sure that the destination files are identical to the source files.

/q : Suppresses the display of xcopy messages.

/f : Displays source and destination file names while copying.

/l : Displays a list of files that are to be copied.

/g : Creates decrypted destination files.

/d[:mm-dd-yyyy] : Copies source files changed on or after the specified date only. If you do not include a mm-dd-yyyy value, xcopy copies all Source files that are newer than existing Destination files. This command-line option allows you to update files that have changed.

/u : Copies files from Source that exist on Destination only.

/i : If Source is a directory or contains wildcards and Destination does not exist, xcopy assumes destination specifies a directory name and creates a new directory. Then, xcopy copies all specified files into the new directory. By default, xcopy prompts you to specify whether Destination is a file or a directory.

/s : Copies directories and subdirectories, unless they are empty. If you omit /s, xcopy works within a single directory.

/e : Copies all subdirectories, even if they are empty. Use /e with the /s and /t command-line options.

/t : Copies the subdirectory structure (that is, the tree) only, not files. To copy empty directories, you must include the /e command-line option.

/k : Copies files and retains the read-only attribute on destination files if present on the source files. By default, xcopy removes the read-only attribute.

/r : Copies read-only files.

/h : Copies files with hidden and system file attributes. By default, xcopy does not copy hidden or system files.

/a : Copies only source files that have their archive file attributes set. /a does not modify the archive file attribute of the source file. For information about how to set the archive file attribute by using attrib, see Related Topics.

/m : Copies source files that have their archive file attributes set. Unlike /a, /m turns off archive file attributes in the files that are specified in the source. For information about how to set the archive file attribute by using attrib, see Related Topics.

/n : Creates copies by using the NTFS short file or directory names. /n is required when you copy files or directories from an NTFS volume to a FAT volume or when the FAT file system naming convention (that is, 8.3 characters) is required on the destination file system. The destination file system can be FAT or NTFS.

/o : Copies file ownership and discretionary access control list (DACL) information.

/x : Copies file audit settings and system access control list (SACL) information (implies /o).

/exclude:filename1[+[filename2]][+[filename3]] : Specifies a list of files containing strings.

/y : Suppresses prompting to confirm that you want to overwrite an existing destination file.

/-y : Prompts to confirm that you want to overwrite an existing destination file.

/z : Copies over a network in restartable mode.

/? : Displays help at the command prompt.

Using /v 
Windows XP does not use this command. It is accepted only for compatibility with MS-DOS files.
Using /exclude 
List each string in a separate line in each file. If any of the listed strings match any part of the absolute path of the file to be copied, that file is then excluded from the copying process. For example, if you specify the string “\Obj\”, you exclude all files underneath the Obj directory. If you specify the string “.obj”, you exclude all files with the .obj extension.
Using /z 
If you lose your connection during the copy phase (for example, if the server going offline severs the connection), it resumes after you reestablish the connection. /z also displays the percentage of the copy operation completed for each file.
Using /y in the COPYCMD environment variable
You can use /y in the COPYCMD environment variable. You can override this command by using /-y on the command line. By default, you are prompted to overwrite, unless you run copy from within a batch script.
Copying encrypted files
Copying encrypted files to a volume that does not support EFS results in an error. Decrypt the files first or copy the files to a volume that does support EFS.
Appending files
To append files, specify a single file for destination, but multiple files for source (that is, by using wildcards or file1+file2+file3 format).
Default value for Destination 
If you omit Destination, the xcopy command copies the files to the current directory.
Specifying whether Destination is a file or directory
If Destination does not contain an existing directory and does not end with a backslash (\), the following message appears:
Does destination specify a file name
or directory name on the target
(F = file, D = directory)?
Press F if you want the file or files to be copied to a file. Press D if you want the file or files to be copied to a directory.
You can suppress this message by using the /i command-line option, which causes xcopy to assume that the destination is a directory if the source is more than one file or a directory.
Using the xcopy command to set archive attribute for Destination files
The xcopy command creates files with the archive attribute set, whether or not this attribute was set in the source file. For more information about file attributes and attrib, see Related Topics.
Comparing xcopy and diskcopy 
If you have a disk that contains files in subdirectories and you want to copy it to a disk that has a different format, use the xcopy command instead of diskcopy. Because the diskcopy command copies disks track by track, your source and destination disks must have the same format. The xcopy command does not have this requirement. Use xcopy unless you need a complete disk image copy.
Exit codes for xcopy 
To process exit codes returned by xcopy, use the errorlevel parameter on the if command line in a batch program. For an example of a batch program that processes exit codes using if, see Related Topics. The following table lists each exit code and a description.
Exit code
Files were copied without error.
No files were found to copy.
The user pressed CTRL+C to terminate xcopy.
Initialization error occurred. There is not enough memory or disk space, or you entered an invalid drive name or invalid syntax on the command line.
Disk write error occurred.

To copy all the files and subdirectories (including any empty subdirectories) from drive A to drive B, type:
xcopy a: b: /s /e
To include any system or hidden files in the previous example, add the/h command-line option as follows:
xcopy a: b: /s /e /h
To update files in the \Reports directory with the files in the \Rawdata directory that have changed since December 29, 1993, type:
xcopy \rawdata \reports /d:12-29-1993 
To update all the files that exist in \Reports in the previous example, regardless of date, type:
xcopy \rawdata \reports /u
To obtain a list of the files to be copied by the previous command (that is, without actually copying the files), type:
xcopy \rawdata \reports /d:12-29-1993 /l > xcopy.out
The file Xcopy.out lists every file that is to be copied.
To copy the \Customer directory and all subdirectories to the directory \\Public\Address on network drive H:, retain the read-only attribute, and be prompted when a new file is created on H:, type:
xcopy \customer h:\public\address /s /e /k /p
To issue the previous command, ensure that xcopy creates the \Address directory if it does not exist, and suppress the message that appears when you create a new directory, add the /i command-line option as follows:
xcopy \customer h:\public\address /s /e /k /p /i
You can create a batch program to perform xcopy operations and use the batch if command to process the exit code if an error occurs. For example, the following batch program uses replaceable parameters for the xcopy source and destination parameters:
@echo off
rem COPYIT.BAT transfers all files in all subdirectories of
rem the source drive or directory (%1) to the destination rem drive or directory (%2)

xcopy %1 %2 /s /e

if errorlevel 4 goto lowmemory
if errorlevel 2 goto abort
if errorlevel 0 goto exit

echo Insufficient memory to copy files or
echo invalid drive or command-line syntax.
goto exit

echo You pressed CTRL+C to end the copy operation.
goto exit

To use this batch program to copy all files in the C:\Prgmcode directory and its subdirectories to drive B, type:
copyit c:\prgmcode b: 
The command interpreter substitutes C:\Prgmcode for %1 and B: for %2, then uses xcopy with the /e and /s command-line options. If xcopy encounters an error, the batch program reads the exit code and goes to the label indicated in the appropriate IF ERRORLEVEL statement, then displays the appropriate message and exits from the batch program.

PostFix 2.2.2 Move

Posted by support | Linux MailServer,Postfix | Thursday 1 June 2006 8:46 am

ES 4 Server
Application used in process for moving:
Webmin (http://webmin.com) “A very useful program)
command line

Actions performed:
1) Performed a tar -zcf postfix.tar.gz of the postfix directory.
2)Performed a backup of user accounts using Webmin.
3)Performed a backup of home directory tar -zcf home.tar.gz

FC 4 Server
Application used in process for moving:
command line

Action performed:
1)Installed postfix using YUM
2)Installed Webmin
3)Extracted the postfix.tar.gz (overwrite of the original installed directory.
4)Extracted the home.tar.gz
5)Using Webmin interface did a restore of the user accounts.
6)tested usernames and passwords and it worked.

All mail from the RHES4 server was now on FC4 Server.

If you have Dovecot or another POP3 access server you will have to move it as well.

Active Directory Restores

Posted by support | Active Directory,Command Line | Thursday 1 June 2006 8:20 am

Test Lab Results: 

AD Restore.pdf

This lab was to test what AD would do under weird conditions and restores.
Please comment if you find anything. This was just a test lab. All Servers were in VM Workstation 5.5.
The safest way to restore Active Directory is to make sure your Domain Controllers only do Active Directory. Veritas and other programs have cause DCs not to boot. Remote restores from Veritas 9 would also overwrite the system state of a DC. I informed Veritas of this bug in 2004. Veritas has a patch now for this bug.

How to migrate Exchange 2000 (SBS) to Exchange 2003

Posted by support | Exchange,Microsoft,Windows MailServer | Thursday 1 June 2006 8:16 am

Duration of change over:
1 week
Server: Dell 2400 (Server is over 6 years OLD)
Server Name: SES01
Server: Dell 1420SC (Moving to this server under VMWare)
Server Name: EX1
Disk Server Dell 2400 SCSI 36 gigs 3 in Raid 5 Hardware
2 in Volume Raid 5 Mirror to the Volume Drive 68.9 gigs (Software)
Dynmanic Disks are required for Software Raid
(Yes I am really into backups)
used NTBackup of C drive and M drive no service Stopped
used NTBackup of C drive and M Drive Exchange Service Stopped
Mirror Raid 5 over to Volume Drive
Tested both to make sure they would boot.
While mirroring drives:
Created Server on Server 2000 in VMWare
installed updates
Cloned Image for Exchange Server
I also shutdown my VMWare Domain Controller and did a copy to make sure it would boot off the network.
Reason for all the Backups
If anything when wrong I could always go back to the time I started.
Removed Server SES01 (Server 2000 Small Business) from being a Domain Controller
I also made sure Exchange 2000 worked.
Exchange 2003 install:
Installed Exchange 2003 custom.
After install I followed the steps in Q307917.
Then, I moved 10 mailboxes to the new server.
After one work day:
I shutdown server and copied image for a backup. I then installed SP2 on the Exchange server.
Shutdown SES01 and did not turn on for 3 days.
No issue with users and mailboxes.
shutdown all servers and copied images of all VMs to a safe location.
Rebooted all server including SES01
Images gigs total = 89 Gigs  (with the SATA Drives this took about 30 mins)
Uninstalled Exchange 2000 (I had to remove it from EX1 I could not run the install on SBS 2000)  The uninstall would not work.  SBS must be the only server in for the uninstall to work (guessing)
I did test on the EX1 server after I removed the server from Systems Manager.  I could send and recieive emails from many domains.
All users mailboxes moved to new server.  I logged in as each user and Exchange did move the users to the new mail server EX1.
I put spam connecitons filters on.

Cisco Bridging

Posted by support | Cisco | Thursday 1 June 2006 8:08 am

Scenario: Click to see Drawing PictureNotes are in the following order:
Rough = my notes taken during testing
Test0X = my notes cleaned up
Index to TestLabs